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Plc Based Advanced Water Distribution System

Essay by   •  August 19, 2018  •  Research Paper  •  9,764 Words (40 Pages)  •  730 Views

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Water is the one of the fundamental need for our daily life , nowadays water crisis causes more impact than financial crisis in our life. Many countries including India are still facing water crisis and continue using the conventional method for fulfilling the domestic water needs. Conventional water distribution for areas is managed by manually operated valves and water pumps. Water and power are being wasted because of the laziness and irresponsibility of the operator.

This proposed project primarily focuses to solve the same problem. In order to make water distribution more efficient by reducing wastage of water and power an automated system of water distribution using Programmable Logic Control (PLC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is introduced. This method can be applied for both rural and urban areas. The Advanced Water Distribution System (AWD System) is an intelligent system which ensures balanced distribution of the water throughout the city/area. The AWD system offers complete & effective automation for Water distribution. It monitors, controls and protects all the water pumps used for water distribution. It monitors all the water storage tanks situated and distributes the water to all the areas depending upon the amount of water in the tank. All these tasks are monitored through dedicated system software of the AWD system. It is versatile and allows the addition of areas, control valves, storage tanks and water pumps. The water level in each sub tank is sensed and sent to the controller through level sensors. And when the water level in the sub tank is critically low or lesser than the lower level sensor, the valve connecting the main tank and the sub tank is opened, forcing water to flow to the sub tank from the main tank. When the water level in the sub tank is higher than the upper level sensor, the valve connecting the sub tank and main tank is closed. Solenoid valves are used for controlling the flow of water which is an electromechanical switch. Further, flow meters can be attached to the tanks to determine the flow of water to each tank and to determine water theft and monthly usage bills. Alarm systems can be used in case of any malfunction of system or tanks. Therefore AWD system provides a completely secure and efficient method for water distribution among different areas from a common source by reducing water wastage and leakage.

1.1 Objective

The main idea behind this project is to make water distribution system more efficient and convenient by using automated controls like PLC and real time interface software like SCADA. The manual distribution of water may cause leakage and inefficient distribution. This proposed method is more cost effective and reliable in the long run. Since it is programmed for automated distribution, any change or modification can be made easily by altering the program.

1.2 Literature Survey

Water is one of the most important natural resources. Being used for various domestic and industrial purposes, there is no substitute for water. And hence, proper distribution and management of water becomes a priority. There is rapid growth in wide urban residential areas, therefore it is a need to provide better Water Supply. Water supply systems are the crucial part of urban infrastructure; therefore system must assure the continuity of the water distribution, water quality monitoring and control of technological parameter. Appropriate flow rate, pressure, and water quality are necessary for effective use. Best policy to save water is to use it properly. Conventional water distribution system comprises of mechanical valves to distribute water. Since process is controlled manually, it requires more time and man power, with significant wastage of water. In countries like India, there are local labors called as ‘water man’ to distribute the water to required area. And because of misuse, water distribution may not happen efficiently. This may also lead to water leakage or overflow resulting in water crisis. Even in India’s greatest cities, water problems are endemic, because system maintenance is nearly nonexistent. Water plants in Delhi, for instance, generate far more water per customer than many cities in Europe, but taps in the city operate on average just three hours a day because 30% to 70% of the water is lost through leaky pipes and thefts. The existing system uses man power for the distribution of water in rural as well as urban areas. The process involves manually opening the valve to an area where water needs to be distributed and closing it after completion. This is time consuming and also there is a wastage of man power. Hence an effective automation technique where the water distribution or supply can be controlled depending on the level of water in the sub tanks will prove to be more efficient and effective. Water theft is not easy to control in cases where distribution is done manually. Therefore problem of insufficient water for some areas may arise.



2.1 Block Diagram

Figure 2.1. Block Diagram of proposed system

2.2 Schematic Diagram

Figure 2.2. Schematic diagram of AWD

2.3 Working Methodology

The schematic diagram of the PLC based AWD is shown in the previous page. The working of the system is as follows. Main tank is the water source from which water is being distributed to different areas through sub tanks. The water supply is controlled through solenoid valves. The entire logic of distribution is programmed and stored in the PLC. SCADA monitors the entire process and acts a real time interface. There are two level sensors, upper float switch and lower float switch in each sub tank. These are connected to the PLC. The opening and closing of the valve depends on the status of these two switches.

Float switches are nothing but level sensors



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