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Rise of Nationalism in Europe

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The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Refer page 1 of the text book which deals with an artistic work of Frederic Sorrieu in 1848.

Characteristics of a Nation-State

During the 19th century, nationalism emerged as a force which brought about sweeping changes. The concept of Nation-state was a result of such changes.

o People develop a sense of common identity and shared history.

o A centralized authority rules the nation which has well-defined boundaries.

o National flags and emblems help in establishing a common identity.

Results of the French Revolution

o The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland ) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the need for unity.

o The Estates General, the French parliament was renamed as the National Assembly.

o The royal standard flag was replaced by tri colour flag.

o A centralized administrative system was put in place. Uniform laws were introduced.

o Internal customs duties were abolished.

o A uniform system of weights and measurements was adopted.

o French, as it was spoken and written in Paris became the common language of the nation.

To be precise, the practices that were adopted in the days of monarchy were discontinued.

Impact of the French Revolution on Europe

The French Revolution of 1789 had far reaching consequences. The revolutionaries in France thought that it was their mission to liberate the people of Europe from despotism. Europe was happy to receive the success in 1789. People of the continent felt as if they had achieved some thing tremendous. Jacobin clubs were started in many parts of Europe. The French armies moved into Holland, Belgium and Switzerland and Italy. There, they were welcomed as harbingers of liberty.

Reaction to Napoleon or French rule in Europe

There was a mixed reaction to the capture of European countries by Napoleon Bonapart. The following factors can be attributed to the liking of his rule.

o By the Napolenic code of 1804, all privileges based on birth were abolished.

o Equality before law and the right to secure the right to property were made legal.

o Napoleon abolished feudal system and freed the peasants from serfdom (Slavery).

o Transport and communication systems were improved. Administrative divisions were simplified.

In spite of experiencing certain benefits mentioned above, the people were not happy with the French rule. It is because of the following reasons.

o Increased taxation

o Compulsory military training or conscription &

o Censorship

Fig4 & 5 in Page 7 are important.

Conditions prevailed in Europe in 18th century

o Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons.

o Eastern and central Europe were under autocratic monarchies.

o The Hapsburg empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary was a patch work of different regions. It included the Tryol, Austria, Sudetenland and Bohemia.

o In Hungary, the half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects.

Life of Aristocracy and the New Middle Class

Aristocracy was the most dominant class on the continent. (Europe) the members of this class were united by a common way of life no matter where they lived. They spoke French. Though they were few in number, they exerted control and command over the majority of the people. Due to their intimacy with the king, they enjoyed certain privileges.

Industrialization began I n England in the second half of the 18th century. Subsequently, it spread to France and Germany. The middle class people felt the need to abolish the privileges of the aristocracy.

Demands of Liberal Nationalism

The term 'liberalism' comes from the Latin

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