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Role of Observational Learning in Domestic and Family Violence

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Assignment 1: Written Summary (Part 1) and Oral Presentation (Part 2)

Article 1: Child-to-parent violence: The role of exposure to violence and its relationship to social-cognitive processing

        The reason the study was conducted because there was a lack of research into cases         where domestic violence is caused by the child on the parents, also known as         child-to-parent violence (CPV). This is shown through the exposure of aggression and         its association with some variables of the social-cognitive dispensation in an assemble         of adolescents who exploit their parents. It hypothesised that there would be high         scores         in aggression revelation at home in the assemble of CPV criminals within the         family         setting, as well as that EV at home would be incomparably linked to both         variables of antagonistic social discernment and civil disrepute solving proficiency.

        This was an independent study which samples participants conveniently. The         participants included 90 adolescents from Jaén (Spain), the Juvenile Justice Service,         with 30 of them being adolescents whose parents had reported them for physical         abuse, 30 were juveniles who had partaken in other crime, and the last group was         made up of 30 teenagers with no offender charge. The adolescents answered questions         to the exposure of violence, insight of censure & negative relationships with parents,         antagonistic societal awareness, and societal problem-solving skills. This was         concluded through the Exposure to Violence Scales. It was also measured by the         explicit victimisation and witnessing being evaluated in different situations. The         Warmth Scale (WS) was also measured to display the adolescents’ insight of         criticism and rejection from parents. Another test that was used was the Attitudes         and         Social Strategies Questionnaire, which measured the witnessing and victimisation         stages.

        The end results revealed that against other groups, adolescents who were violent         towards their parents associated advanced stages of exposure to aggression at home.         In additions, the foundation of outcomes from the intergenerational transmission of         violence tactic, hypothesised, through observational learning and replication of an         adult model, children from abusive backgrounds could become attackers         themselves, as they internalise that using violence is a suitable means to distribute         with relational        disagreements. To summarise, exposure to aggression at home acts as a         vital variable in CPV cases. Although, some limitations that affected the study was;         the study being built on cross-sectional information, the sample number being         comparatively minor, information referring to a specific sample of adolescents from a         specific district and ethnic context, all measures being based on adolescents’ self-        reports, and finally, the data was gained from the reported occurrences that were         attained by the Juvenile court. However, despite these limits, the study research has         revealed that experiences of familial abuse is a representative of numerous violent         adolescents.

Article 2: Exposure to violence, typology, and recidivism in a probation sample of domestic violence perpetrators.

        Fowler, Cantos, and Miller discusses the intergenerational transmission of violence,         effects and outcomes associated with later violence perpetration, perpetrator typology,         and treatment and recidivism. This article examined the prognostic value of self-        reported domestic violence perpetrator’s exposure to aggression in their family         foundation and outlines linked towards the exposure through the use of longitudinal         examinations. Therefore, it was hypothesised that viewing interparental abuse as a         child or adolescent has been connected to abundant damaging results in adults.

        This was an independent study which samples participants conveniently. The         participants studied were 228 male individuals who were sentenced to probation         between 2006 and 2008 from the Adult Probation Services in Lake Country Illinois.         The method used included investigating the alterations in typology, reoffending         frequency, and aggressive behaviour survival outlines in men with a history of         domestic violence commission and with differing stages of origin family violence         exposure.

        Overall, a diversity of brief and extensive psychological, emotional, cognitive, and         social properties have been linked with adolescents who reported exposure to         aggression in their family of origin. Although, adults who have reported being abused         as a child have faced increased risks of mental illnesses. Furthermore, it has been         estimated that coarsely 20 – 30% of American children have viewed violence between         their parents, with male children who saw parental violence tended to display more         behavioural disorder and overall signs of distress. However, the overall results show         that 12.7% of the total sample were abused only, 11.4% were witnesses only, 9.2%         were both, and 66.7% were none. Furthermore, it is entrenched in the social learning         theory, which hypothesised that observational learning is the main process in allowing         this transference of violence, and this direct behavioural condition and imitation of         other’s behaviour is how this cycle is perpetuated. The results for individuals who         have been exposed to both types of violence have been limited, and has produced         varied results in relations of whether this dual exposure results in important additive         effects compared to witnessing only.



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