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The Use of Observational Learning by Athletes

Essay by   •  June 7, 2011  •  Essay  •  839 Words (4 Pages)  •  1,714 Views

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Introduction

A study was done on various male and female athletes that play recreational and varsity sports to test their use of the function of observational learning in their individual and team sports they play. A questionnaire called the Functions of Observational Learning Questionnaire (FOLQ) was developed to look at three functions of observational learning: skill, strategy and performance. A researcher named Cumming wanted to assess the athletes by using the FOLQ to find out if depending on the various groups of athletes, does the use of observational learning differ between them. It was hypothesized the men and women use the functions of observational learning about the same, while varsity athletes use the functions of observational learning more than recreational sports. It was also hypothesized that team sports athletes used observation learning more than individual sports athletes because team sports athletes will have other teammates they can observe when they are at practice and when they are competing. This journal looked at these various groups and to see if there is a difference or not between the groups use of the three functions of observation learning theorized by Albert Bandura.

Subjects

For this study researchers used 377 males and 265 females for a total of 642 participating athletes, who compete in recreational and varsity sports. Out of those athletes, 96 of them played individual sports and out of those athletes, 49 of them were males and 47 were females. 546 of the athletes played a team sport and out of those athletes, 328 of them were males and 232 were females. For the individual sports 20 was in track and field, 1 was in cross country, 13 were in tennis, 9 were in golf, 1 does snowboarding, 8 played badminton, 23 athletes do swimming, 1 does diving, 12 athletes does squash, 4 do figure skating, 1 runs a triathlon, 1 cycled, 1 danced, and 1 does alpine skiing. For the team sports: 74 of them are on a hockey team, 99 are on a soccer team, 33 are on a rowing team, 7 athletes do field hockey, 63 of them are on a basketball team, 78 athletes are on a volleyball team, 56 plays baseball, 51 athletes do rugby, 1 plays broomball, 52 athletes are on a football team, 19 plays on a lacrosse team, 11 are on a cheerleader team, and 1 athlete is on a waterpolo team. Out of those sports 312 athletes play recreationally which came out to be 198 males and 114 females. 330 of the athletes play varsity which came out to be 179 males and 151 females.

Materials

For this study a 17 item questionnaire called the Functions of Observational Learning Questionnaire (FOLQ) was used to evaluate how much the athletes use both cognitive and motivational functions of observational learning. On the

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