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Talc and Shopping Tourism

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The Tourism Life Cycle Model was proposed by Butler (1980) as a tool to describe the process of how a particular destination goes through from the beginning until the end. In attendance, there are six stages available in the model, starting from the exploration, involvement, development, consolidation and lastly stagnation. After the stagnation stage, the destination can be can decline or rejuvenate based on the actions taken by the management of the destination. The first stage which is the exploration, a destination is still in its infancy as not many people realize about the destination. Only very few visit the destination due to the restrictions of accessibility, facilities and local knowledge. In the stage of development, the words spreads about the destination which makes more people visit it, thus making the authority to develop the facilities such as toilets. Stagnation stage is when the number of people visiting the destination is increasing which somehow leads to the control of the destination such as developing the carrying capacity concept. A and B are the actions taken by the authorities in ensuring the longevity of the destination which is towards rejuvenation. C and D are increased congestion and unsustainable development, causing the resources that originally drew visitors to the destination to become corrupted, or no longer exist while E is the likely path of a destination following a disaster or crisis.

Map of Ipoh.

Ipoh is the state capital of Perak which can be reached approximately 200km (125 miles) to the north of Kuala Lumpur (capital of Malaysia). Ipoh covers 137.5 square kilometres where the population is 798,800, approximately 69% are of Chinese descent. The name Ipoh originated from a local tree known as "pokok Ipoh". This particular plant is known for its tree sap. This sap is poisonous and it was used by the aboriginal people in their blowdarts. Ipoh has shown a significant growth of tourism since the past 16th century. Emphasis has been given on tourism sector. Ipoh is one of the more progressive cities in Malaysia and is fast becoming a focal point of industry, business investment and education. As a result of tourism, many accommodations, transportation and attractions have been developed. In explaining the situation of Ipoh, the Tourism Life Cycle Model (Butler, 1980) is been applied. The city is now on the development stage; it is growing and getting expanding.

In the exploration stage the city is isolated with a gloomy appearance and with very less or no development. The tin mining area was present when Acehnese and the Dutch travelled to Ipoh. During the time, a limited number of businesses exist. Mostly, the provided facilities are used and owned by locals. Their relatives started to visit the destination but they were restricted by lack of access and facilities. Only small numbers of adventure tourists (explorers, allocentrics) discover the destination, making individual, non-institutionalized travel arrangements and having limited impacts on the area. The main reason of their visit was due to the tin ore. These tourists (tin miner) were welcomed by the locals. Basically, Ipoh was built by miners and migrants such as Cantonese and Hakka mining managers and their coolies, Malay aristocrats and small rubber-holders, Sumatrans political refugees and journalists, European mining engineers and planters, Ceylonese pressmen and printers, Sinhalese jewellers, Tamil railway-builders and Chettiar money-lenders, Japanese photographers, American Methodist missionaries, South Indian Muslim food-sellers and petty-traders, Hokkien shopkeepers, French Catholic and Eurasian as the educationists.

In the involvement stage visitors from other countries were attracted by the available resources of the destination. Some of them and the local entrepreneurs realized the economic significance of tourism and begin to provide facilities and services to tourists. The only means of approach to Ipoh fifty years ago was by the Kinta River. Paths also existed, for bullock-carts were much in use as means of transport. Ships from other countries came as far as Telok Anson (then called Sepatang). The rest of the journey could only accomplished by river-boat. This stopped at Batu Gajah, hence its early importance and it is still the capital of the district. A few boats came as far as Ipoh and stopped near the present Hugh Low Street Bridge. Market Street seems a misnomer but it must be pointed out that at its eastern end, next to the river, was Ipoh's central market. Before its removal before the First World War, it was an important landmark, much subject to flooding. There was a Rest House at the site of the Cenotaph. The Ipoh Railway Station was a replica of the one at Batu Gajah. Construction of the railway station and hotel began in 1917. Until 1880's, Kinta River was the main transportation link between Ipoh and other areas, whether within or outside Perak. After 1874, Kinta did not progress much due to the transportation problems, as sampans, elephants and bullock carts were very slow. In 1884, roads were built to connect Gopeng village and the port in Kota Bharu and connecting the mining area in Papan and Batu Gajah. Where the town Board building is, in an attap hut, was the Police Court. This kind of development drew a new sort of tourists to the destination, tourists' numbers increase, as well as tourism impacts. Some jobs were created for locals and the demand of foreigners' leaded to the production of local handicraft, and art items for sale to tourists. Pressures may be placed on the public sector to provide infrastructure, and a seasonal pattern emerges. At this stage community begins to adapt to the tourist trade and advertising to attract tourists can be anticipated. Given the success of the development in attracting tourists, there was a kind of "neighborhood effect" with the increase in the construction of more accommodation, infrastructure, commercial, and recreational facilities and second homes. Before that, a hospital was already built in Ipoh while a new hospital was built in the area between the train station and Central Police Station. Then, more than half of the thatch-roofed houses were pulled down and replaced by brick buildings, and drainage systems were improved. Roads were reorganized and shade trees were planted. During this time too, Ipoh Sanitary Board was set up and it was responsible for the cleanliness level in Ipoh. Thus, Ipoh became the largest town in Perak and the second largest in the Federated Malay States. At the same time, the road links between Ipoh and other places in Kinta Valley were improved. The wooden bridge crossing Kinta River was replaced by a steel bridge later. Services and public facilities were provided. The sewerage system was built, followed by the use



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