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The Effect on Inmates

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The purpose of using classifications in prisons is to help minimize violence, victimization and minimize misconduct (Spieker & Pierson, 1989). Classification is a way of evaluating prisoners to help balance the security and the strategy that incoming prisoners require. Once prisoners are taken into the institution there are evaluations that they are given (North Carolina Department of Public Saftey, 1995-2012).

Classification determines how a prisoner will progress through the different levels of custody and their eventual release from prison. In prison there are specialists that create each inmate's profile, these profiles have all information pertaining to the inmate such as:" offender's crime, social background, education, job skills and work history, health, and criminal record, including prior prison sentences." An inmate is placed based on this information; their behavior and ongoing risk assessments will be determined by facility staff on their way to their return to living in the outside community (North Carolina Department of Public Saftey, 1995-2012).

In the state of Michigan prisons are categorized by levels of security. Level 1 has prisoners that are more easily managed even if they have committed a violent crime. Level 5 is used for maximum security or inmates that are considered a high security risk (MDOC, 2001-2013). Inmates that are classified under minimum and medium security sleep in dormitory like environments: bunk beds, lockers, community showers, toilets and sinks. Minimum security is for prisoners that are not considered a physical risk to the general public they are considered non-violent.

Close security usually are in a cell that holds one or two inmates. Each cell contains their own toilet and sink. Prisoners may have work details and participate in correctional programs. They are allowed to have a "common area" and exercise yard. Maximum security all inmates have their own cells. Usually inmates are in their cells 23 hours a day. Federal prisons are only for inmates that have been convicted of breaking Federal laws (De Maille, 2007).

Incarceration affects inmates in the fact that it can aid in the development of habits of dysfunctional thinking but this can be reversed after release. The affects can and do depend on the person. Being in prison for some is painful as there is the separation from friends and family. The isolation from trusted individuals, the lack of freedom and the lack of having interaction without fear can break some individuals or make them hardened and the psychological harm it can cause could create more suffering and cause more damage (Haney, 2001).

Are there positive elements in a prison's culture? The answer is yes, there can be a positive elements in prison culture. Vermont's Workforce Development Program has shown that in order to reduce recidivism for inmates that have a poor work history and good chance of reoffending teaching life skills that include education, work and living units can cut recidivism by 25%. This is created on positive reinforcement and an inmate's strengths. In Vermont correctional facilities along with correctional officers, instructors and shop supervisors work together to develop a certain respectful relationship between staff and inmates so that all get the support and supervision needed to work and live in a way that is improved. Skills training and education can enable newly released prisoners to find employment, as they can obtain their GED and or receive a college education (Houston, 2009).

Negative elements in the prison culture starts with the issue of overpopulation. This can lead to psychological issues that relates to how inmates treat one another. It can create more confrontation between inmates which in turn creates more violence between inmates and guards; sets the culture in prisons as aggressive then to punishment (Miller, 2010). The staff to inmate ratio is another issue that can lead to negative prison culture. Being under staffed there is a higher likeliness of violence. Prison gangs create a negative culture in themselves. Inmates join gangs for security reasons and protection. Inmates that are facing life in prison feel they have nothing to lose and can create havoc, knowing there isn't much else that can be done to them (Day, 2010).

Women in prison differ from men in many ways. Women have a different style for coping with the separation from family members and children. Women can experience severe anxiety and anger. If a women goes to prison pregnant they are often made to give birth there and then give up their baby. Coping is different for women as they may become self- destructive by attempting suicide or mutilating themselves. Another coping device for women is creating family units; containing both male and female players (Saxena, 2008).

As more inmates are male than female programs in prisons are more directed towards men; women are more overlooked. Female inmates have used the Equal Protection Clause of the constitutions (State & Federal) to receive programs that are equal to what men receive. Medical care



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