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Precise Farming Using Gps

Autor:   •  July 10, 2017  •  Research Paper  •  2,495 Words (10 Pages)  •  31 Views

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                                            PRECISE FARMING

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SUBMITTED BY – ARSHDEEP SINGH

ROLL NO- 31

SUBJECT- GPS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

ABSTRACT        

Precision farming is a  management idea in farming field which is based upon detecting, quantifying  and reacting to inconstancy in crops. Spatial and temporal components are associated with crop variability that  makes mathematical treatments  dominant. Main aim of accurate farming is the power to specify a System  for management  in agriculture keeping the aim of maximizing the  returns on inputs in mind . The truth lies in the fact  that basic ideas like the power to explore different areas of management  , different areas in which practices related to management shall be applicable , for one type of plant  on a singular farm spanning  over an interval of  time are  very hard to specify. Phytogeomorphological approach is one such approach among many which relates multiple year crop growth stability to topographical terrain attributes.  Phytogeomorphological approach gained popularity because the geomorphology component decides the field’s hydrology. Datasets of multiple years are now very popular that show this stability and these effects, however, there is a lot of scope which is possible  in creation of  such  system which can assist people related to farming globally.

It is true that the advancement of GPS and GNSS gave way to precision agriculture. The ability to identify accurate coordinates  in a particular field grants the freedom of formation of maps of the spatial variability multiple variables equal to the number as can be measured . These variables include yield of crop, features of relief , moisture levels, pH,  nitrogen levels, content of organic matter  etc. Further, comparison on common base is possible by interpolation. Any decision support system that can be prepared for a farm results in the creation of recipe maps. The development of  sensors which are inbuilt on the motor vehicle have the ability to measure everything from green pigment  levels to plant water levels in real time,  monitors of crop field mounted on GPS, creation of variable rate technology have also enabled precision agriculture.


INTRODUCTION

 Issues concerning

The main aim of Precision agriculture is to optimize management of field  with respect to:

  • Basic technique in crop: It is done by aid of  matching  practices of farming  more closely to  needs  to needs of the like usage of  fertilizer inputs
  • Protection issues of environment:  It is done through reduction in the environment related risks . Nitrogen’s limiting leaching comes under this;
  • Economics : It is done through  enhancement in competitiveness through by aid of better practices . Fertilizer’s effective  management comes under the economics issue .

 A variety of information is provided by precision agriculture which is as follows:

  • An improved  record of a  farm is possible;
  • Decision-making process enhancement;
  • It gives better traceability
  • Marketing of farm products gets a major boost
  • Relationship with landlords is enhanced and lease arrangements are improved
  • Enhancement in  the inherent quality of farm products

                                               PROCESS

Precision agriculture is basically a multiple-stage process which uses processes to view aerial variability:

Geolocation of data

 Field’s location geographically allows the farmer to cover data collected from study of samples of and  nitrogen which is left over , and data on former crops and  resistivity of soil. Locating geographically can be achieved in following ways:

  • A basemap is formed from aerial photography and the farm is specified onthat base map. For ensuring that the location is accurate enough quality and the resolution must be precise.
  • While the farmer carries out work with the machinery in the farm, an inbuilt GPS receiver on the vehicle is used to specify the farm.

Defining the inconstancy

Different things are responsible for variability within and outside the field. Amounts of nitrogen , conditions prevailing, different farming practices etc are some of the factors affecting it. Important constants about the nature are provided by the indicators that are permanent in nature like indicators of soil are one of these. To check if the crop is getting destroyed or not i.e. its current status which includes stresses about nitrogen and water levels , point indicators are really useful. To achieve this data various types of sensors and the information from the weather stations is used. Analysis of soil along with the resistivity of soil makes way to accurately plot various agricultural conditions.

Techniques to handle the inconstancy

Various field inputs can be adjusted by the use of these two techniques:

  • Technique involving the probability: It is based on the study  of non-kinematic factors that include past history of the farm, resistivity etc.
  • Control approach: Data obtained from the  stable factors  is refreshed from time to time by:
  • Farmer moves around the whole field to note down the current status of the leaf by aid of sensors in the machinery.
  • Taking the mass of the fruit, noting down its biomass and seeing the levels of chlorophyll.
  • Carefully noting down various things like water content in air, leaf or soil , diameter of the stem and the temperature.

Steps to cater inconstancy

Management relating to the crop in the farm is made more useful and easier to use by advancement in the wireless information technologies. Agricultural machinery that incorporates flexible rate mechanization is needed if management of crop in the field needs to be done. for example varying the spray of various fertilizers and seeds.

Precise Farming takes use of the automation of farm machinery:

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