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An Analysis of the Lubrication Properties of Pimento Oil in High Loading Condition

Essay by   •  July 6, 2012  •  Research Paper  •  1,421 Words (6 Pages)  •  1,820 Views

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Introduction

Pimento or Allspice is a spice, which is the dried unripe fruit of the pimento dioica plant, it measure 4 inches long 3 inches wide, it has a complex aroma, hence its' name with a similar taste to a combination of cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg and juniper, it consist of 3 to 4% of volatile oil, a compound in the oil, called eugenol is found to be a local antiseptic and pain reliever.

The pimento is considered to be superior due to its higher oil content than that of Mexico, Honduras and Guatemala.

History of pimento

Christopher Columbus brought allspice to Spain from the Caribbean, where it got the name "pimienta," which is Spanish for pepper. Although he was seeking pepper, he had never actually seen real pepper and he thought allspice was it. Its Anglicized name, pimento, is occasionally used in the spice trade today. Before world war, allspice was more widely used than it is nowadays. During the war, many trees producing allspice were cut, and production never fully recovered. Most allspice is produced in Jamaica, but some other sources for allspice include Guatemala, Honduras, as well as Mexico. Jamaican allspice is considered to be superior due to its higher oil content, which gives it a more appealing flavor.

Spanish explorers happen on to the pimento plant in Jamaica in the beginning of the 16th century. The Spaniards thought the fruit look like pepper so they gave it the name of Jamaica pepper and pimento from the word "pimiento" Spanish for peppercorn.

The English name allspice was given because the spice is said to the aroma of several spices including cloves, pepper and even cinnamon and nutmeg.

Uses in the nineteenth century

Allspice was used as a deodorant within the 18th century by Russian solders who would put allspice in their shoes

At the end of the nineteenth century, it become Fashionable to have umbrellas made of pimento; folklore suggests that allspice provides relief for digestive problems.

Manufacturing bio-based lubricants

Looking at bio-based lubricants and comparing them with petroleum based lubricants

Motor oil is seen as a petroleum based lubricant that contribute to the environment in a negative way compared to bio-based lubricants the motor oil is seen as a bad choice to be used as lubricant in terms that it do not contribute to the environment positively like bio-based lubricants.

Environmental properties

Sustainability of the use of chemicals can be divided in two aspects; first aspect regards the origin of the resources, the second aspect that regards the pollution of the environment has two sub-aspects: direct and indirect pollution. Deposits of mineral oil do not guarantee that mineral oil will be available in the future since they are not renewable and cannot be replenished. Also the availability of mineral oil is highly dependent on political considerations. Plant-based oils on the other hand are mainly renewable raw materials. Indirect or secondary environmental pollution is caused by the indirect exposition of a chemical to the environment at the end of their lifespan. The organic chemicals are disintegrated to carbon dioxide and water. The carbon cycle of petrochemicals is not closed and leads to an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and as a result contributes to global warming. In contrary the plant-based oils carbon dioxide

Liberated equals the amount of carbon dioxide that was originally taken up by the plants from the atmosphere (Willing 2001; Rudnick 2006).

Primary pollution is caused by the direct exposition of a chemical to the environment (Willing 2001). There are two different types of lubricant applications: an open system where the lubricant is used in total loss applications and closed systems were the application of lubricants is not exposed to the environment (Willing 2001; John 2004).

Biodegradability

Biodegradability is the most important aspect with regard to the environmental fate of a substance. Primary degradation is the first breakdown step; it is in fact disappearance of the original molecule. But more important is the determination of the ultimate degradability, or mineralization of substances to CO2 and H2O and the formation of biomass. Ultimate biodegradability better guarantees the safe reintegration of the organic material in the natural carbon cycle, it is very important for its environmental classification. Determination of lubricant water hazard class is important with regard to the evaluation of a possible long-lasting adverse impact to biota. Biodegradability depends more on chemical structure of the lubricant and less on its water solubility. Plant-based oils exhibit high degradation rates, and generally can be considered biodegradable; this biodegradability is not affected by the usage (Willing 2001; Schneider 2006). Mineral oils on other hand cannot be considered as readily biodegradable. Lubricants based

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