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Chapter 1 - Organizational Behavior and Management

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Chapter 1   Organizational Behavior and Management

Idealistic Definition of an Organization: A social invention for accomplishing common goals

  • Where going to work fulfills our needs to:
    -Be in social groups; Use and upgrade our skills; Contribute to a larger cause

Cynical Definition of an Organization

  • A collection of people who are coerced to achieve organizational goals
  • Where individual & organizational goals differ
    -Individual goals: earn a lot of money; achieve power / prestige
    -Organizational goals

-provide innovative products; service customers; make profit; achieve market share

Theory X and Theory Y

  • Theory X
    -Employee: is lazy, dislikes work, and will do as little as possible
    -Manager: supervise closely; control employees through reward and punishment
  • Theory Y
    -Employees: Employee and organizational values align – what is good for one is god for the other
    -Manager: Encourage value alignment; Encourage employees to exercise initiative

Other Definitions of an Organization

  • Mobilization of several kinds of scarce resources

-capital, commitment, skills, and legitimacy which cannot be mobilized outside of the organization

  • Complex pattern of communications

-providing information, goals, attitudes, expectations, role system

  • Group built to operate technologies

-which are found to be impossible or impractical for individuals to operate

  • Memory and transference of routines and skills
    -group facilitates skill transfer & process skills (machinist, press operator, etc.)
    -managerial skills (decision making) & executive skills (leadership and value judgments)

Human Relations Definition of an Organization

  • A collection of people who work together to achieve individual goals and organizational goals
  • Goal Co-ordination

-Mutual attention to individual organizational goals provides the best likelihood of organizational survival and individual achievement


-The actions taken by actors (individuals, groups, or organization) in response to organizational demands

  • Productive behaviors

-Output, Job Satisfaction; Commitment, Creativity, Rule following, Organizational Citizenship, Etc…

  • Counterproductive Behaviors: Waste, Politics, Aggression, Sabotage, Theft, Etc…

What influences how an actor responds to organizational demands?

  • Factor #1: Actors - Actors are Unique
    -Attitudes, Behaviors, Beliefs, Experiences, Intelligences, Learning, Motivations, Perceptions, Personality, Stress, Values, Etc…
  • Factor #2: Environment - Contexts Differ
    -Change, Conflict, Network Dynamics, Stress, Uncertainty
  • Factor #3: Relations - Management’s Actors Differ
    -Communications, Culture, Leadership, Organizational Structures, Power / Politics, Socialization, Teamwork

OB MANAGEMENT: The art of getting things accomplished in organizations through other

  • Tasks: Predicting, Explaining, Administer organizational behaviors

HR MANAGEMENT: The management of the workforce with a focus on planning, organizing and staffing

  • HRM

-Compensation, Workforce planning, Motivational design, Workplace design, Health & Welfare

-Succession planning, Selection & recruitment, Orientations, Training / Coaching, Conflict Resolution


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Systematic Time & Motion Studies: 1880~1940, Industrial Revolution, Frederick Taylor

  • Study a task’s design (time & motion studies)
    -Code best technique into SOPs

-Establish pay system based on expected efficiency
-Select & train employees suited to task

  • Allow exceptional employees to benefit from overachieving
  • Reset efficiency targets to reflect
    -Changes in equipment & Technique improvements
  • Problems

-Managers increased efficiency standards but hesitated to reduce efficiency standards



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