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Development as Planned Poverty - Ivan Iilich

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Development as planned poverty- Ivan IIlich

The theory starts with the argument of how rich nations are diverting defence budgets towards economic help of poor nations. This mass market for goods, products can increase supply indefinitely. In encapsulating world view, the institutions are producing more goods, services to substantiate this world view. This created the demand for more 'packaged solutions', where obsolescence is the order of the day and consumerism at its peak. As a result, basic needs come at a higher cost. All the institutions emerge out to support this consumerism. This has led to tapping of new resources in environment and also led to it's over exploitation. Environment has become a by-product of man's high consumerism.

Development also became a definition of the rich, who impose their packaged solutions into the third world. It is seen as re defining consumerism through new technology, new packaging. He also discusses the creation of middle class, who become consumers of new products. But, he laments the breakdown of tradition and culture among them.

The concept of development is often defined here as inferiority/inadequacy of the 'poor' countries and the need to evolve and advance towards something else defined by the west. The mass needs are converted to the demand of packaged solutions, which are forever beyond the reach of the majority. This gap keeps widening and the development again is eluded. He again describes underdevelopment as a form of consciousness, which manipulates the basic needs of potential consumers.

He further illustrates the concept of underdevelopment through the concept of schools. Schools make an unschooled individual feel inferior about his existence and potential as compared to someone who is schooled. Education does not elevate the person to higher social consciousness rather makes him more excluded from the social life.

Education as one of the intervention does not result in the physical, intellectual or spiritual growth of an individual. He laments the education does not promote the opening up of human potential to higher levels of awareness which fosters his growth. On the contrary, its conditions human beings to surrender to packaged solutions. Research is concentrating on technologically refining the existing products and institutions.

Encountering development-The tale of three worlds and development: Arturo Escobar

This paper is a discussion on how 'development' seen as a dream by developed countries has turned into a nightmare for few countries at the wrong end of it. This explains how doctrines of modernisation have been instrumental in inventing the 'third world'. Post world war led to the discovery of 'poverty' in Latin American, Asian and African countries. The definition of 'poverty'



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