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Inflammation Mechanism in Humans

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Inflammatory Mechanism in Human

Inflammation is an innate defense. It is always prepared to respond to negative or harmful stimuli. The first line of defense is the body's membranes, intact skin, and mucosae. The second line of defense involves antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, and other cells within the tissues to inhibit pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants.

During the injury of tissue, the body is going to have numerous physiological responses. The release of chemical mediators such as, histamine, complement, kinis, and prostaglandins along with the release of leukocytosis-inducing factor, pain will also be an immediate response to the harmful stimuli.

From the release of chemical mediators will cause numerous reactions to take place. Vasodilation of the arteries will take place causing increased blood flow to the affected area and that will cause redness and heat from the core temperature blood. This locally increased temperature increases the metabolic rate of the cells in the affected tissue.

The chemical mediators also cause an increased capillary permeability thus causing capillaries to leak fluid, known as the exudate formation. This will also cause pain and swelling in the affected area and a possible loss of or limitation of joint movement. Clotting proteins are also leakedto form interstitial clots that will wall of the area to prevent injury to surrounding tissue and temporary fibrin patch forms scaffolding for repair.

After the release of leukocytosis-inducing factor, leukocytosis takes place and increased numbers of white blood cells are released into the bloodstream.

The release of chemical mediators attract neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes to the area (chemotaxis) causing leukocytes to migrate to the injured area. Margination takes place after this(leukocytes clinging to capillary walls). The next process in Diapedesis, where the neutrophils flatten out and squeeze out of the capillaries. The phagocytosis of pathogens and dead cells begins by neutrophils, and macrophages. Pus may form during this stage and once the area is cleared of debris, healing will commence.



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