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Nursing Role - Bullying

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Nursing Role - Bullying

April 9, 2012

Plagiarism Statement

I have read and understand the plagiarism policy as outlined in the RNBSN Student Handbook and this module as it relates to the Honesty/Cheating Policy. By affixing this statement, I certify that I have not cheated or plagiarized in the process of completing this assignment. If it is found that cheating and/or plagiarism have taken place, I understand that the consequences of this action may include expulsion.

______________________ _________

Name

The Nurses' Role - Bullying

The role of the nurse has been constantly evolving and transforming. During the 1800's nursing's most legendary figure, Florence Nightingale, introduced new concepts in hygiene during the war that reduced the death rate of the wounded. She fought for the right to practice and collected statistics to prove her cause had meaning and purpose. Her talents were numerous as she functioned not only as a healer, but also as an epidemiologist, researcher, educator and patient advocate. She set the pace for nursing and started the first nursing school which formed a model for the nursing education in the United States (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 30).

Wars seem to accelerate the evolution of nursing. During the 18th century Civil War, the United States was faced with no organized system of health care delivery for the wounded soldiers. An appeal was made and women rose to the occasion by volunteering and providing care. Clara Barton, another well-known figure in the history of nursing, led the volunteers by sitting up a hospital in the battlefield to care for the wounded soldiers (Evans, 2003, p. 77). According to Evans, as a result of her work during the Civil War, the American Red Cross was formed (p. 79).

During the 19th century, nursing became more accepted as a profession as more public nursing schools evolved. With this evolution, several organizations were established that formed the basis for allowing nurses to join together as one voice in an alliance to promote their profession. The National League for Nursing (NLN) formed in 1893, the American Nurses Association formed in 1896, and the International Council of Nurses organized in 1899 (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 33). According to Chitty & Black, state licensure for registered nurses evolved from these organizations (p. 33).

World War I expanded the opportunities for nurses and young women were allowed to be officers in the army. Nursing diploma programs and rural midwifery programs were launched in the 1920's and proof was established that nurses could play a role in providing primary rural health care through the Frontier Nursing Service (FNS) that began in 1925 (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 37). According to Chitty & Black, the challenges of the Great Depression forced the nurses that were employed by the rich into unemployment and they were forced to go to work in the hospital systems at a cheaper rate of pay (p. 38).

World War II brought on yet another shortage of nurses and Congress allowed legislation to provide money to train nurses in return for continued employment throughout the war (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 38). However, according to Chitty & Black nursing shortages continued from 1945 - 1960 with the construction of additional hospitals. The Vietnam War again provided nurses some autonomy while working in the jungle mobile make-shift hospitals. The diagnosis and treatment, as part of the legal scope of practice for Advance Practice Nurses, was first recognized in 1971(Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 40).

Managed health care begot yet an additional role for the nurse in the late 1980's with the emphasis shifted on health care reform to cut medical cost. In the reform effort, nurses wrote its Agenda for Health Care Reform in 1992 to reduce cost and improve access to care (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 40). The health care reform bill did not pass in Congress, but according to Chitty & Black, attempts were made to obtain third-party reimbursement for advanced practice nurses (2011, p. 40).

Organizations such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation identify the need to promote nurses in the present health care system. The shortage of nurses will continue to grow with the continued entrance of the baby boomers into the healthcare arena and the increase of the aging population. Currently, new things are happening in nursing, ADN nurses are encouraged to return to school for BSN degrees, APN will be awarded doctoral degrees, and BSN's are obtaining master's degrees. Kentucky Board of Nursing in 2004 identified 49,066 registered nurses, 1860 licensed practical nurses, and 2733 nurse practitioners in the state of Kentucky (Dixon, 2004). But, in order to be persuasive in decision making, nurses must join their organizations and be active in the political field to promote change. Leaders in nursing, since Florence Nightingale, saw and grasped the link between their role and how policy outcomes determine their actions (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 362).

Nurses can work at their community level to identify issues and problems affecting their area. The community problem this writer chose to tackle is bullying among our children. "Bullying is described as a form of aggression in which there is an imbalance of power between the bully and the victim with intent to cause harm and/or distress" (Pepler & Craig, 2000, p. 4).

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