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Clinical Supervision, Consultation, and Advocacy

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Clinical Supervision, Consultation, and Advocacy

Clinical supervision is a requirement necessary to become a licensed counselor in addition to standing as an important and ethical practice that provides much opportunity for growth, development, and continued education for both the aspiring counselor as well as the supervisor. This paper includes an evaluation of clinical supervision models as well as the benefits of supervision during counseling training and after completion of formal training. This paper also includes reasoning regarding why clinical supervision is ethically important to the field of counseling. In addition, this paper includes definitions of consultation and advocacy as each relate to mental health counseling, an analysis of differences and similarities between consultation and advocacy in mental health counseling, a description of the role in relation to advocacy or consultation in mental health counseling, and an evaluation of potential identifiable barriers (institutional or social) that carry potential to impede success, access, or equity for clients. This paper includes strategies available for utilization that work to address multicultural issues as well as advocating for diverse populations. This paper also provides hypothetical examples of advocacy and consultation for children, adolescents, adults, couples, or families.

Supervision Models

Several models exist for utilization in applying clinical supervision over aspiring mental health counseling (Farrington, 1995). Such models include, (without intentions of limiting to, the Six-Category Intervention Analysis model, the Triadic model, the Multicultural model, and the Interactive model (Farrington, 1995). The Six-Category Intervention Analysis model utilizes six components that each contribute (interchangeably) and includes two main areas of application that each of the six components fall under. The two main areas are authoritative, which refers to an assertive style of supervision that focuses on what a supervisee does in his or her practice (Farrington, 1995). The authoritative area includes the prescriptive, informative, and confrontative components. Prescriptive refers to the fiving of advice as well as explicit directions regarding the supervisee and the behavior the supervisor expects (Farrington, 1995).

The informative area refers to the style in which a supervisor instructs, provides knowledge and experience, and informs the supervisee (Farrington, 1995). Confrontative refers to a upfront, blunt, and to-the-point style of supervision that includes the supervisor providing direct, specific, and clear attitude in relation with challenging ideas, and feedback (Farrington, 1995). The next supervision model, the Triadic model refers to a three part interaction between a client, the supervisee, and the supervisor (Farrington, 1995). Specifically, the supervisor provides the supervisee with knowledge, skills, and techniques that each influences the relationship between the client, supervisee, and supervisor (Farrington, 1995). One benefit to the Triadic model is that each of the three participants in this model is in a learning and educative position during such interactions (Farrington, 1995).

The Multicultural model exists more as a benefit to the supervision and learning process instead of a stand-alone model available for clinical supervision and the process of supervision. Rather, the Multicultural serves as beneficial experience supervisee's can obtain through use of any supervision model with elements of the Multicultural in inclusion (Farrington, 1995). Specifically, the Multicultural model holds that each individual develops and utilizes styles of learning that each represent and reflect behaviors, attitudes, values, and belief systems of the culture, community, and family from which individuals derive from (Farrington, 1995). Elements that the Multicultural model includes identify such characteristics. One main point this model offers is keeping such characteristics in mind when evaluating client issues and devising appropriate treatment plans that provide opportunity for success and manageability over such issues (Farrington, 1995).

The Interactive model of supervision refers to a model that includes three interactive tasks that function as specific approaches toward particular areas of focus (Farrington, 1995). Such tasks include normative tasks, formative tasks, and restorative tasks. Normative tasks refer to aiding clients in the development of standards. Formative tasks refer to the development of understanding, ability, and other skills (Farrington, 1995). Restorative tasks refer to helping a client work toward helping and validating others to ensure appropriate development of an environment with safety and grounds for creativity and consistent forward progress (Farrington, 1995). Each model of supervision benefits the process of supervision and ensures each participant in the process experiences and acquires benefits clinical supervision offers both before as well as after formal training (Farrington, 1995).

Benefits of Clinical Supervision before and after Formal Training

Clinical supervision offers benefits to all individuals the process includes; the supervisee, the supervisor, and the client. Research holds that the purpose of clinical supervision and beneficial intentions contribute toward a successful, reflective practice that helps such participants to learn from past experiences that in turn helps each participant further progress successfully and improve future practices (Ross, 2013). Some researchers argue the supervision does not contribute to a better and successful practice or relationship with clients (Ross, 2013). However, studies and research hold that because the process of clinical supervision offers benefits to all parties, the process does contribute toward successful experiences in teaching, learning, obtainment of tools usable to appropriate and acceptable management of self for the client, the supervisee, and supervisor (Ross, 2013). The supervision process benefits the supervisee in several fashions. Such benefits include a wealth of experience, knowledge, and confidence through educative information the supervisor can provide (Ross, 2013). The supervisee is not only utilizing personal experience and knowledge from schooling, but also has the available option to refer to his or her supervisor for additional input that often carries potential to help the supervisee offer experience and knowledge he or she may not otherwise or already possess (Ross, 2013). The client benefits from the supervision process in that he or she is first and foremost meeting with an individual who is knowledgeable from recent academic ventures and experiences (the supervisee) as well as knowledge and wisdom the supervisor



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