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Independent Indians and Us - Mexican War

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Independent Indians and the U.S. War-Mexican War is the title of the article written by Brian Delay. This is an article where the author discusses the role of independent Indians, more generally their role in the political history of the United States and Mexico. The author pointed that historical scholars have often ignored the role of Indians in determining the international history of North America. Campaigns of Comanche and Kiowa tribes into Mexico are elaborated more specifically. I chose this article because the author stated that how Indian raiders helped to outline how Americans and Mexicans looked at each other before the U.S.-Mexican War. The author also stated that how the U.S.-Mexican could be seen as the pursuit of independent Indians pursuing their own interests at the limitations of state power.

Mexican-American War was occurred between 1846 and 1848. The majority of the fighting took place between April 1846 and September 1847. The war was fought mainly in northeastern and central Mexico and caused in a vital American victory. As a result of the war, Mexico was forced to abandon its northern and western provinces, which today includes an important portion of the western United States. The main cause of the war was going back to history where Texas winning its independence from Mexico in 1836. After the end of the war Mexico refused to accept the new Republic of Texas, but was banned from taking military action due to the United States, Great Britain, and France conferring diplomatic recognition. For the next nine years, many in Texas preferred joining the United States, however Washington did not take action due to fears of increasing sectional clash and angering the Mexicans. On May 8, 1846, US General Zachary Taylor was moving his 2,400-man army to release Fort Texas, when he was stopped at Palo Alto by 3,400 Mexicans commanded by General Mariano Arista. In the battle that followed Taylor defeated Arista, forcing his army from the field. The battle continued the next day at Resaca de la Palma, with Taylor's men routing the Mexicans and driving them back across the Rio Grande. After they strengthened their force Taylor advanced south in the Mexico, the following heavy fight captured the fortress city of Monterrey. When the battle was over Taylor offered two months truce in exchange of the city. This offer angered Polk who began to band Taylor's army of men for use in invading central Mexico. Taylor's campaign ended in February 1847, when his 4,000 men won a stunning victory over 20,000 Mexicans at the Battle of Buena Vista. The battle was over in February 8, 1848, with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This treaty conceded to the United States the land that now includes the states of California, Utah, and Nevada, as well as parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Colorado. Mexico also refused all rights to Texas. During the war 1,773 Americans were killed in action and 4,152 were wounded.

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