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Nutrition Case - Diet and Health in Australia

Essay by   •  June 1, 2011  •  Case Study  •  2,851 Words (12 Pages)  •  1,272 Views

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NUTRITION

PART 1: Diet and Health in Australia (Red Headings Following the Syllabus)

 Physical effects and economic costs of malnutrition (under and over nutrition) and diet related disorders...

Malnutrition: a condition where one or more nutrients are not supplied to the body in correct amounts. And this is recognised in the following two:

Over - nutrition: Diet in which contains an excess of one or more nutrients. E.g. fats, carbohydrates (sugars) and protein.

Health conditions linked with over-nutrition include:

 Obesity

 Hypertension

 Dental Caries

Under - nutrition: One or more nutrients are lacking in the diet. E.g. carbohydrates such as fibre and minerals (iron and calcium) and water.

Health conditions linked with under -nutrition include:

 Anorexia nervosa

 Bulimia nervosa

 Constipation/diverticulitis

 Anaemia

 Osteoporosis

Diet - related disorders are those conditions not just related to nutrient intake.

Diseases linked with diet - related disorders include:

 Diabetes

 Food intolerances / Allergies

Causes, Physical and Economic Effects of the above Diet Disorders: [ 2 examples each ]

OVER-NUTRITION

1. Obesity (excess weight): When energy intake is greater than energy expenditure.

Physical effects:

- Excess fat is stored in adipose tissue (fat)

- Cardiovascular System is working twice as hard

- Fatigue

- Stress on body joints

- Reduced body temperature control

- Conditions form such as: Gall bladder disease, Cardiovascular disease, Respiratory disorders and Diabetes

Economic effects:

- Cost of hospital treatment

- Surgery

- Medicine

- Toll on ability to work

- Absenteeism

2. Hypertension (high blood pressure): Excess sodium can cause an imbalance of water in body cells, so the body retains water causing the heart to pump blood under pressure.

Physical effects:

- High blood pressure

- Brain haemorrhage

- Stroke

- Heart failure

- Kidney disease

Economic effects:

- Cost of hospital treatment

- Surgery

- Medicine

- Toll of ability to work

- Absenteeism

UNDER-NUTRITION

1. Anorexia Nervosa (self-induced weight loss): Psychological obsession with weight loss which can be triggered by:

 Puberty onset

 Low self-esteem

 Influence of media on body image perceptions

Physical effects:

- Muscle wasting

- Abnormally low body weight

- Absence of consecutive menstrual cycles

- Low blood pressure

- Death in extreme cases

- Burnt oesophagus

Economic effects:

- Special wards

- Psychological counselling

- Use of expensive resources to treat the condition e.g. overseas clinics

2. Anaemia (Low iron in blood): Low iron in blood can result from:

 Blood loss

 Inadequate intake of iron

 Reduced absorption of iron

 Repeated pregnancies

Physical effects:

- Chronic lethargy

- Headaches

- Dizziness

- Heart palpitations as the heart pumps fasters to deliver required oxygen needs to muscles

Economic effects:

- Iron supplements needed

- Need to be treated with blood transfusions

 Nutritional considerations for specific groups...

Specific community groups have particular nutritional needs and these depend on:

> Physical State

> Age

> Health Status

> Level of exercise

> Nationality

Within the Australian community, specific groups with special requirements such as being under or over nutritioned include:

> Adolescent girls

> Pregnant and lactating women / teenagers

> Vegetarians

> Athletes

> Elderly

> Post-menopausal women

> Middle-aged men who live alone

> Individuals with specific health conditions e.g. diabetes, cardiovascular disease

>

...

...

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