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Pragmetic Approach of Teaching Science at Secondary Level

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Different teachers use different methodology to teach their subjects but how to teach the science really fascinated the researchers since a long time now. From the studies it seems to be a matter of taste rather than reason. The researchers have picked up a method or strategy or a package and compared it with the traditional teaching through a parallel group design and have come out with the finding that their method was more effective than the traditional method. It is beyond any iota that science curriculum is still needs a redesign. While the primary aims of the curricula, previously, were to develop operational skills and to bring up individuals who can perform operations fast and correctly, in the current educational systems such aims are not the priorities of the curriculum. Instead, conceptual understanding has become the principal aim of curricula. Arora, S.K (1986) in his study Validation of a Science Education Curriculum to Develop Instructional Competence at the B.Ed. Level hypothesized that the present curriculum for teaching science in B.Ed. colleges was not up to date and relevant to the present needs of the students, teachers and society. In the area of science teaching there are basically two types of studies. One type, which can be termed as status studies, pertains to the survey of the present state of teaching of science subjects at different levels, while the other type is related to the experimental verification of the effectiveness of different methods or strategies of teaching. Except for Adinarayan (1984) who judged the status of science teaching in primary schools of Tamil Nadu through a parallel group design of experimental method, the rest of the studies in this sub-area relied on questionnaires and interview schedule or, in one case an achievement test. Agnihotri (1987) found that the traditional method or the lecture-cum-demonstration method followed by the verification type of laboratory work was more effective than the assignment-cum-discussion method. Some researchers emphasized on system approach of teaching science as a medium of instruction. Anjaria, R (1984) found that systems approach to instruction was more effective than the traditional approach to instruction. Bajracharya R. K (1986) studied the existing conditions of secondary science education in Nepal, the problems of the existing secondary science education in Nepal, and evaluation a functional model for improving secondary science education in Nepal. Deopuria, R.P(1984) studied the students of secondary classes and found that there was higher achievement scores due to teaching of science through the environmental approach which helps to understand the application of science concepts. Dighal, K.C.,(1985) explored how to make life science teaching lively, realistic and interesting to the students and attempted scientifically to improvement of the present methods. Gangoli, S.G. and Gurumurthy, C (1985) took similar study to compare the effectiveness of doing experiments in physics at the higher secondary stage by the open-ended approach vis-a-vis the traditional approach and found that students of the guided open-ended group showed better performance in the achievement test and in the skill test than those of the traditional laboratory group. Then Swarnamma (1978) and Sachdeva (1986) found almost similar conditions for the teaching of biology and physics respectively. Muddu (1978) conducted a survey of 120 high schools and then Desai (1986) surveyed 460 higher primary (middle) schools of Karnataka and found that, though the textbooks were attractive and suitable, and experiments were conducted by teachers, the climate for motivation for teaching and learning of science was not there. The problems faced by teachers or students while teaching or conducting science practical seemed to be a matter of interest for every body. Lambhate (1987) developed instructional strategies for science teaching and found them effective. Goyal, K.M(1982) found that the curriculum needs to be structured as keeping the pragmatic component in to consideration for science subject. Krishnan, K(1981) also remarked his study with the same remarks as of Goyal K.M(1982). Aziz, M.A. and Talegaonkar, A (1984) in their two different studies advocated the development of strategies of teaching science and secondary level with pragmatic approach. Teaching science without practicals or laboratories, teachers teaching subjects other than the one they are qualified and appointed for, weak expression and strictly confining themselves to the syllabus were some of the problems exposed through these studies.

Keeping the importance of effective science education, conservative education this paper tries to present simple means to inculcate some sustainable traits for the conservation, awareness and protection of natural



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