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Research Process Paper

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Team B will further map our research criteria by reviewing more data, defining our primary sample size and we will display our data and discuss ethical concerns.

Review of Literature

Team B has picked four journal articles to help with their research efforts. The peer-reviewed articles will help us understand what the wants and needs for cell phone uses are in the Middle East. Literature reviews will examine how the activity has helped to introduce the subject of study, identify the research question, and build on previous research to offer the bias to get to the next steps of theoretical framework and hypotheses development (Sekaran, 2003).

In the article, Cellular Telephones in the Israeli Market: The demand, the choice of provider and potential revenue; it states that the study presents the methodology, the estimates and a scenario for forecasting the demand for cellular telephones and their use in Israel. The analysis was based on the integration of three sub-models. The estimate of the consumer's decision on whether to purchase a cellular telephone and what type was obtained by using a discrete choice model of the multinomial logit type. The total number of cell phone purchases to be made in Israel during the years 1998-2008 was estimated using a logistic growth model employing aggregate data over time. The research shows the substantial economic potential of Israel's cellular telephone market (Tishler, Ventura, Watters, 2001). This is a clear example of why there should be an increase of marketing cell phones in the Middle East. This information is crucial for our research because it shows that there is a substantial increase in the Middle East and would be a huge economic gain to any company that takes the risk.

Another article that was important to us was Bush administration reports areas of progress in Iraq: Salt Lake Telegram. In this article there are some very important statistics about the increase of cell phone usage after the war in Iraq began. The overall number of telephones in Iraq, including cell phones, is up nearly 46% since before the war. Cellular phone usage has soared with more than 429,300 subscribers nationwide. More than 201,000 subscribers have had their land telephone lines reinstated, but there are still only 784,200 land lines, compared to 833,000 before the war (Associated Press, 2004). This information tells us that Iraq and other Middle Eastern countries are using cell phones more than before the war, which will increase our chances of successfully marketing cell phones in that region.

This next article is a little different from the rest. Even though it is not about the Middle East, it is about literacy and cell phone usage. The article Exploring the relationship between children's knowledge of text message abbreviations and school literacy outcomes is about 88 children that range from 10-12 years of age who are tested on their knowledge of text messaging and how it related to their literacy. As a measure of textism knowledge, the children were asked to compose text messages they might write if they were in each of a set of scenarios. Their text messages were coded for types of text abbreviations (textisms) used, and the ratio of textisms to total words was calculated to indicate density of textism use. The children also completed a short questionnaire about their mobile phone use. The ratio of textisms to total words used was positively associated with word reading, vocabulary, and phonological awareness measures. Moreover, the children's textism use predicted word reading ability after controlling for individual differences in age, short-term memory, vocabulary, phonological awareness and how long they had owned a mobile phone. The nature of the contribution that textism knowledge makes to children's word reading attainment is discussed in terms of the notion of increased exposure to print, and Crystal's (2006a) notion of lucid language use (Plester, Wood, and Joshi, 2009). This information is useful to our research study because it shows how literacy can have an impact on cell phone usage.

In the last article, we were able to find some very interesting statistics and facts about the increase of cell phone usage in Israel. In Israel, Motorola connected by cell phones ranking fourth per capita in use of the wireless devices, the tiny Middle East State is also home to the region's biggest marketer of them. Motorola Israel is looking for further expansion, we learned that there are 1.4 million cell phones in Israel. That's one mobile phone for every four Israelis, and more than doubles what it was just a year ago. Israelis also have the highest average usage rate in the world: 500 minutes a month (Rowley, 1997).

Sampling Design

Define the population from which your samples came:

As of July 2011, the estimated population of Iraq is 30,399,572. The population is divided into ethnic groups of 75%-80% Arab, 15%-20% Kurd, and 5% all others. The population density of Iraq is 131 people per square mile. To define the population in which our samples came would be a predetermined part of an arithmetical population whose properties were calculated to add information as a total. Sampling with Iraq, can be defined as a cluster or group of people who are chosen from a bigger group or set of people for the purpose of conducting a survey.

The reason for sampling was to draw conclusions in relation to Iraq's populations and the usage of cell phones within the country. Inferential statistics was used, which enabled us to establish Iraq's population uniqueness by openly observing just a fraction (or section) of Iraq's inhabitants. We obtained a sample rather than a full record of the people for numerous different reasons. Clearly, it's easier to examine a fraction rather than the entire population; however we must always prepare ourselves for problems with using samples. This portion of the paper, we will go over what type of sampling was used in our research and whether the sample size was appropriate for this particular topic of discussion. There are several types of sampling measures. A number of them are better than others, but every one of them may possibly yield samples that are erroneous and unpredictable.

Probability Sampling Design: Systematic Sampling

Was the sample size appropriate for this research topic?

Systematic Sampling was used in our research for cell phone usage in Iraq amongst its people. Our main motive for using a systematic sample was that it was more sensible in terms of resources and time compared to a straightforward



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