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The Development of Potato Plant as Aeroponictechnology on Methanol Treatment

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The Development of Potato Plant as AeroponicTechnology on methanol Treatment

on Medium Land

A.Muhibuddin1, Zulkifli Razak2, Abdul Halik3, and Jeferson Boling4

1,2,3,4Agro Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University "45” Makassar

Jl. Urip Sumoharjo Km. 4 Makassar 90245

Abstract

    This research  was conducted frombtained

   June to October 2013 at Horticulture Seed Station on medium land (500-600 meter), Bantaeng disctric,    South Sulawesi. Bantaeng is one of a center of potato cultivation in South Sulawesi Province.The purpose of this study was obtained the potato Aeroponic technology by using  methanol in the medium to acquire land plateau production rate and to obtain high productivity and free pest attack. Experiments using a split plot design . In the main plot, potato Atlantic and Granola variety. The second factor is the concentration of methanol is made ​​up : 0 % (without methanol); Methanol 5 %, 10 % methanol  and    15 % methanol. The results showed that methanol application on plain medium multiplication results Aeroponic technology, giving better results than without methanol. Methanol concentration of 15 % gives the best effect compared with 5 % and 10 %, the yield increase (production and quality of potato). Granola variety respond more than the Atlantic variety, both in production and quality.

    Key words : Potato, Aeroponic, Methanol, Land, Plain Medium

INTRODUCTION

Productivity potatoes in Indonesia is still very low, at 13 t ha-1, much of the potential for the production may reach 40 t ha-1 (DJBPH, 2010). Weak seed systems, the high risk of failure due to the Plant Pest Organisms (OPT) and low mastery of production technology is a major problem low national potato production. This causes national seed potatoes need are still heavily dependent on imports, the availability of only around 5.97% of the needs of 121,753.5 tons  year-1, with a value of Rp 1.25 trillion ± (DPSP 2011).

         To overcome the problem is fo develop  seed production technology, such as  aeroponic technology wchich using  provision of nutrients to plant roots by means of nebulization (Jensen and Collins, 2005; Howard, 2006), plant roots are left hanging, then on down through the sprinklers sprayed nutrient solution and the roots will capture and absorb the nutrients (Resh, 2004; Park, 2005).

        The research had carried out by Muhibuddin et al., (2009) throught  Competitive Research Grant program (HB) 2008-2009, has developed a tissue culture system of cutting production by early pathogen detection system, PCR and ELISA and rapid propagation of cuttings to a cuttings, followed by aeroponic technology. With proper nutrient formulation on aeroponic technology has gained a healthy seed potato which produce  quality generation of zero (GO = source) on a  greenhouse scale and G1 (generation 1) as breeder seed on the  screen house.

        The formulations consist of  N 260 (7:1 NO 3:NH4+), P 87, K 416, Ca 175, Mg 75, S 136.5, Fe 5.0, Cu 0.4, Mo 0.05, Mn 3 , 0, Zn Bo 0.3 and 0.7 mg L-1 gave the best results for quality improvement, growth, and production of potatoes, both on the Atlantic and Granola varieties with an average yield of 25-30 tubers plant-1, Those production much higher than the conventional seed production system which  onlyproduces 3-5 knol-1.

         The development of  potato plant in South Sulawesi has been recomanded  at upland region (800-1500 meters) above sea level with a potential of 11,405 ha (BPS, 2011). The region is increasingly narrow due to conversion and other uses, so it is necessary to find alternatives that can be developed in plain medium (500-700) m asl. Nevertheless, the plain medium, temperature and  light intensity, especially in tropical regions such as Indonesia caused high photorespiration, resulting in waste / release of CO2 from the plant (Barnes and Houghton, 1994; McGiffen and Manthey, 1996). This situation reduces the diffusion of CO2 into the leaf and subsequently decrease the rate fotosintesis. It addresses the problem of methanol that can be used to supply CO2 to the cells of the leaves, so as to compensate for the loss of CO2 in the process of photorespiration (McGiffen and Manthey, 1996;    Zakaria, 2010) . The results of a preliminary study performed on plain medium in the greenhouse by spraying methanol, Muhibuddin had done              a research and showed that 10% methanol spraying every week on potato  production has increasedproduction of 35%, compared with non methanol treatment (Muhibuddin, 2010). The aeroponic technology systems through  methanol application, which is the source of the tissue culture production of cuttings are expected to contribute in solving most of the problems to accelerate the improvement of the national potato production, therefor  reducing the import of seeds gradually. However, the ability of methanol increases the production of potato in plain medium still needs to be tested further at various locations/regions plain medium with a different geographical location.

        The purpose of this study was to obtain potatoes from the Aeroponic technology with the use of methanol in the medium to acquire land plateau production rate and high productivity, and free from pathogens.

                                MATERIALS AND METHODS

                The first year of research activities carried out in two parts in parallel experiments lasted from June to October 2013 at the site of horticultural seed station  Bantaeng, South Sulawesi at medium altitude plains land (500-700) m above sea level, which is one of the central  of the development of the potato crop in Sulawesi South.

                    The stages of the experiment are: The materials used include: Two varieties of Seed potato varieties Atlantic and Granola are used and planted as conventional system. and aeroponic technology.

                     Both system are applied fertilizer (ZA, SP-36 and KCl). The tools used include: a hoe, scales, meters, oven, manure, tarpaulins, drill, stakes, ropes and Basamid Rapiah.

The            Experiment  was conducted using two varieties of  aeroponics potato varieties; Atlantic and Granola. In field plots using design models separately (Split Plot Design). The main plot used Granola  variety (V1) and Atlantic variety (V2). The second factor is the concentration of methanol comprising: M0 = 0% (without methanol); M1 = 5% methanol; M2 = 10% methanol; and     M3 = 15% methanol.   Base on of the two factors obtained, they are 8 combination treatments. Each treatment combination was repeated three times, thefore,  there are 24 units plot of study. The number of plants per unit of study 100 plants, thus totaling 2400 plants. Each unit of study observed/measuring 10 plants as samples, bringing the total of  240 plant samples.        

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