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World Civ - Midterm Essay Questions

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Midterm Essay Questions

2. Discuss the initial spark for the Reformation, describe the 3 major strands of the movement.

The initial spark for the Reformation took place when, the Roman Catholic Church had become so wealthy and powerful that several reformers charged the Church with straying from Jesus' early simplicity and his message of compassion for the poor. Martin Luther who was a pious German monk thought that the Church claimed too much power over individual conscience. He doubted the importance of most of the sacraments and authority of the Church.

Indulgences were offered to individuals from punishments for their sins in exchange for donation of the Church. Luther posted a 95 Theses, statements of his belief, asserting that faith alone justifies the believer in the eyes of God. John Calving preached another doctrine of reform. Like Luther, Calvin spoke of justification by faith alone and of the supremacy of individual conscience, and he denied the authority of the Church.

Calvin went beyond Luther, arguing that God grants His grace to whomever he chooses, regardless of individual behavior. When King Henry VIII broke from the Church, not for reason of doctrine, but to claim authority over the entire Catholic establishment within England. Each of these reform movements rejected the authority of the pope, stressed the freedom of individual conscience in matters of faith, and permitted their clergy to marry.

3. Describe the origins of the African slave trade. What were the roles of Africans and Europeans in the slave trade.

Most European emigrants were free people who moved by choice. But throughout the 17th and 18th centuries Africa contributed more immigrants to the New World than did Europe. These Africans came as slaves, taken as captives and transported against their will. Trading in African slaves was not new.

The Romans had included Africans among their slaves. On its east coast, Africa had long been integrated into the Indian Ocean trade by Muslim and Arab traders. They exported from Africa gold, slaves, irony, and amber and imported cotton and silk cloth. When Portugal began to trade in slaves fro the West African coast, to about 7,500 in the beginning and 50,000 throughout the 18th century.

When European traders offered new opportunities, African businessmen, who were already active in the internal slave trade, joined in. European demand drove the vast increase in the slave trade, but European lacked the military strength, the immunity to disease, and the knowledge of the terrain to enter the interior of continent

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