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Logical Reasoning and Evidence

Essay by   •  February 23, 2013  •  Essay  •  1,270 Words (6 Pages)  •  1,446 Views

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We all read articles that state judgments and opinions about things or issues. But in order for those evaluations to be convincing and effective ,the writers have to back up their evaluations by logical reasoning and evidence. They have to go beyond merely stating their opinions and offer explanation for their position. the essay has to demonstrate persuasion strategies : ethos , Logos and pathos.

In this essay The writer criticizes part-time jobs that teenagers undertake. He considers them as more harmful than beneficial and tries to convince the readers by his perspective through some statistics , studies and reasons he offers. In this article as a whole the writer succeeds in communicating with his audience but tend to lose his convection in some parts because of some left out information, and providing studies that can be considered unreliable.

At the beginning he starts with a broad claim , then states the meaning step by step throughout the easy .he also provides directions to the article .

Etzioni presents many reasons to clarify his point of view. He describes most of part-time jobs as highly routinized with no room for initiative or creativity . He thinks they provide no career ladder, undermine school attendance and involvement and skew the values of teenagers such as the value of dollar. he says those jobs provide no early lessons in work ethics and foster escape from school and responsibilities .And there is also no master or role model for teenagers to learn from. he thinks that part-time jobs have many disadvantages for they undermine values he considers very important like self-discipline and self-reliance.the writer provides information to support his judgment.

The first rhetorical appeal he uses is Ethos .the writer appears to be a credible source of information as he is a sociology teacher and wrote many articles that reflects his commitment to a communitarian agenda .he's trustworthy because of his personal qualifications. But when he mentions that his son contributed in this essay , this seems to partly discredit the article as there is no reference about his son's qualifications and in which parts does he contribute .Also the writer presents studies done by authors like A. V. Harrell and P. W. Wirtz To borrow their credibility to increase his own .But he doesn't really succeed in this for there are no references about whom they are so the readers don't get to know why to consider those studies reliable .

The second rhetorical appeal he uses to support his argument is logos. he uses explanations as part of logos. he says that Macdonald's kind of jobs are not educational because they are highly routinized , there is no space for elementary arrangement and creativity .And also explains that some people consider those jobs ideal for lower-class youngsters, for they provide them with work , income and training .while he considers them to perpetuate their disadvantaged statues by providing no career ladder , no marketable skills and undermining their school attendance and involvement. Additionally, Etzioni offers an example as an explanation for why he finds those jobs provide no skills. He says you can spend 20 minutes in learning how to operate a cash register , but this acquires you no skills compared to working with a lathe or carpenters tool. He also explains why he thinks those jobs provide no role model or guidance, as those work places keep the costs down by having teens supervise teens , with no adults in premises.

Etzioni seems to get most of his information from published studies and surveys . He offers a study by Charper and Fraser,and another one from By Harell and Writz .And an informal survey , that

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