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Organisational Development

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Organisational development was discovered from the rehabilitation effects of the world war. Though coined in 1958, it can be traced back to 1930’s in the works of Kurt Lewin. Organisational development has been, seemingly still is, the significant way to deal with authoritative change over the Western world, and progressively all inclusive. In spite of this, it has all the earmarks of being a lot of perplexity as to its starting points, nature, reason and strength.

Organisational development can be described as the process and method by which development of organisation can be carried out based on the understanding of organisational behaviour, culture and the issues faced to devise a process for optimization, hence bringing about the change in organisation culture using behavioural science methods. Throughout its history, Organisational Development has been driven by the twin forces of academic rigour and practical relevance. There has been much debate in recent years concerning the need to achieve both rigour and relevance in organizational theory and practice. As new theories, perspectives and progressive needs have risen, and as organisational development has endeavoured to respond to these, incidentally its speculative wing has been in the power, and all over its authority wing has gone to the fore. Disregarding the way that this contention of carefulness and essentialness has made Lewin's announcement difficult to achieve, it has given the primary purpose that has pushed organisational development through dynamic circumstances of advance. Notwithstanding the way that the distinctive signs of organisational development conveyed by this contention don't for the most part fit into immaculately packaged time traverses, a consecutive perspective makes it less requesting to understand its headway and empowers it to be seen as a noteworthy part of a more broad setting. The T-group approach which emerged after Lewin became popular. It is often referred to as sensitivity training, because it sensitizes the participants to their own behaviour. Also, because the approach originally brought together groups of strangers in a controlled environment outside their workplaces and communities, it is referred to as laboratory training. As the influence of T-groups waned, the use of the other two core elements of organisational development, action research and participative management, grew considerably and began to dominate organisational development practice.

Organisational development can be looked from seven areas which compromise highly critical knowledge and practice according to Burke. These seven areas are the process and content of organisational development, change leadership, organisational structure, reward systems, training and development, groups and team works, lastly organizational performance. As stated at the outset, these seven areas for our consideration and reflection are, after all, selective. Now let’s understand organisational development as per the seven areas mentioned by Burke.

Organisational development has a process, which can be done in three phases according to Lewin, those three phases are unfreeze, change, and refreeze these were later elaborated by Lippitt, Watson and Westley into five stages. Later Schein provided contributions to help us understand more thoroughly what unfreezing means and how this stage should be done – disconfirmation, induction of guilt and anxiety, and creation of psychological safety. The significance of capable leadership is with regards to the development of the future state and the vision. It’s all about direction. Also effective leadership is required for the development of a clear value base for the change effort. Additionally compelling leadership is required for the advancement of a reasonable esteem base for the change exertion. Thus, it's about bearing and values, and the why with respect to the need for change. The significance of recognizing leadership what's more, administration. There is cover, obviously, yet association improvement and change requires



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