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Application of Therory

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Health care around the world and especially in the Western world has undergone extreme changes over the past few decades, however, the basic principles of nursing such as caring for the sick has remained the same. Many of those principles are supported by a body of knowledge known as the Nursing Practice.

Nursing theories form our Nursing practice .According to Graham{2006]This theoretical knowledge increases nursing power and provides professional autonomy through its ability to guide practice ,education and research .The purpose or focus of nursing has been defined differently throughout the literature. Florence Nightingale identified the focus of nursing in relation to providing an optimal environment in which to foster health promotion and healing. Roy's theory of adaptation is modeled from a behavior theory ,that human beings use coping mechanism to adapt to both internal and external stimuli .Orem's behavioral theory focuses on self care deficit . The work of Peplau introduced interpersonal relations and was responsible for in part for emergence of theory based psychiatric nursing practice. In this paper I will discuss the definition of nursing, four concepts in nursing metaparadigm and the application of Nightingale ,Roy's ,Orem's and Peplau to my Practice .My nursing practice is on a acute care Psychiatric floor. We have 17 beds and see a mixed case group.. According to Capital District Health Authority Data for 2008/2009, the top five case mix groups (CMG) for acute care admission was schizophrenia without electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), bipolar disorder without ECT, Schizotypal/ Delusional Disorder, Schizoaffective Disorder without ECT and Depressive Disorder without ECT


In nursing school I learned about Metaparadigm concepts in nursing and feel my definition of Person, Health, Environment and nursing remain unchanged .I believe as a nurse I have evolved in my ability to use all these concepts in delivering my care.

I wanted to be a nurse after I had a surgery, my senior year of high school. I had to stay in the hospital five days in order to recover, and I was very lucky to have such a wonderful and caring nurse. She made me feel as if I was her only patient. She was the reason I wanted to become a nurse, because I wanted to make others feel the way she made me feel. My personal definition of nursing is encompassed within that one nurse. A nurse should be loving, compassionate, and dependable

Competent, empathic, responsible, joyful and comforting. A nurse not only cares for the physical aspect of the patient but the mind and spirit as well. I believe a nurse should promote physical and emotional well-being. Nursing is more than just administering medications and performing different procedures; it is being with people, talking and visiting with them. It allows the patient to feel that the nurse truly cares about their well-being,. I believe nursing is an art and science dedicated to the wellness of others and the promotion of heath in all facets, physical ,mental emotional and spiritual .Nightingale has influenced my definition of nursing because I believe that every individual has inherit value and that every person has the potential to change. First however there basic needs need to be meet `and to do this .According to George ( 2010}Nightingale believed nursing ought to signify the proper use of fresh air light warmth cleanliness and quiet .Hence meeting there basic needs .Roy adaptation model has also influenced my definition of nursing .According to George (2010) Roy defines nursing as the promotion of adaptive responses in relation to the four adaptive modes physiological -physical ,self concept -group identity ,role function ,and interdependence .Nursing activities support adaptive responses and seek to reduce the ineffective response .In working with Psychiatric Clients as a nurse I assess clients behavior and stimuli and develop a plan of care to assist the client in adaptation of the four modes. Peplau has also influenced my definition of nursing .According to George (2010) she defines nursing as a significant .therapeutic ,interpersonal process .She defines it as a human relationship between an individual who is sick, or in need of heath services .In work with mental heath clients an interpersonal relationship is Detrimental in providing care for the client. Orem Has also influenced my definition of nursing .According to George 2010 Orem defines nursing as a human service and is distinguished from other human services by its focus on persons with inabilities to maintain heath care .Orem also defines nursing as being needed when an adult can not carry our efforts needed to sustain life .

My beliefs about persons (individuals, families, communities) I believe that individuals are inseparably tied to families and the community around them .In nursing I believe one cares for the client and support network around them

I believe a person is made up of there psychological, psychosocial ,spiritual and cultural beliefs .Orem has influenced my definition of Person (human being )According to George (2010)Orem describes humans as having integrated functioning which includes physical ,psychological. Interpersonal and social aspects . My beliefs about health .Heath is a concept to often defined by the absence of illness .I believe Heath is a overall well being physically, mentally, spiritually .I believe people can be healthy even with living with a chronic illness .Orem has influenced my definition .According to George (2010) Orem see heath as a state of physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Environment I see environment as a key in the clients ability to maintain heath and wellness .I believe someone living in a positive environment will most likely see more positive outcomes than a client in a negative environment .I can say Nightingale has influenced my definition of environment .According to George (2010) Nightingale writings reflect a community heath model



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